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外科手術的傷口護理

大部分手術的傷口都需要縫針,傷口才能癒合。傷口通常在手術後一兩天封口。何時封口因人而異,也因手術而異。

這單張會提供一些有關你如何在家中護理傷口的資料。

以下內容由保柏健康資訊顧問團隊提供,一切資料均根據可靠而有醫學證明的資料而編寫,並經保柏的醫學顧問核實。內容僅供參考,不能取代合資格的醫護人員給予閣下之個人建議。  
 

縫線的醫學名稱為「縫合」。除了縫線,還有其他令傷口癒合的方法,例如縫合夾、釘合針或特別的黏合貼。

有些縫線可以溶解,無需拆除(見下文)。其他縫線、縫合夾和釘合針需要護士或醫生拆除。如有此需要,醫院職員會在你覆診時為你作出安排。另外,普通科醫生或護士也可為你拆除傷口的縫合物。

縫線、縫合夾和釘書針通常在手術後3至21天內拆除,視乎手術類型而定。

這種縫線可能要數星期才完全溶掉,期間你可能會看到一點縫線物質於傷口留下的疤痕處奪縫而出。切勿強拉出來,要待它自然脫落。

如果縫線引起痛楚或不適,請徵詢普通科醫生或醫院。

並非所有手術傷口都需要包紮。包紮是為了:

  • 加快癒合進度
  • 吸取傷口滲出液體
  • 保護傷口,直至切口痊癒
  • 避免衣物牽扯縫線或縫合夾

如果包紮的部位保持乾爽,沒有滲出血或其他液體,兩天內可毋須替換或除去包紮。

兩天後,小心除去包紮,手指應避免碰到切口。之後,傷口可以不用包紮,但也有些人因擔心傷口會和衣物磨擦而選擇繼續包紮。醫院會提供包紮用品給你在家中替換。

如果包裝上有圖示,請小心依照圖示包紮。手指應避免觸及包紮接觸傷口的一面。

手術後24小時通常就可以盆浴或淋浴。如果你的情形不同,手術後醫院護士會通知你。

一般注意事項:

  • 盡量淋浴,避免盆浴
  • 沐浴前拆除任何包紮
  • 淋浴時,你可輕輕將水潑在傷口上。可是不要擦洗傷口,因為這樣會引致痛楚,耽誤癒合進度
  • 若果需要盆浴,你必須確保傷口不會沾水。切勿浸泡傷口,因為這樣會使結疤組織軟化,令傷口裂開
  • 緊記用潔淨的毛巾輕輕按乾傷口

手術傷口大多頗快癒合,不會引致任何問題。

不過,如果你擔心傷口情況,請立即聯絡醫務人員。

傷口如有下列情況,請通知醫院:

  • 傷口痛楚加劇
  • 呈紅色、發炎或腫脹
  • 發出異味
  • 滲出液體

 

如果你仍有問題或疑慮,請於到來醫院時提出。

 

It’s usually possible for you to have a bath or a shower twenty-four hours after the operation. Your nurse at the hospital will advise you if this is not the case following your particular operation.

General points to note:

 

  • Showering is preferable to bathing – This is so that your wound doesn’t soak in water. This could soften the scar tissue and cause your wound to reopen. Only have a bath if you can keep your wound out of the water.
  • Remove any dressing before bathing or showering – Unless your surgeon or nurse gives you different advice. Some dressings are waterproof and can be left in place.
  • You can gently wash the area surrounding your wound with mild, neutral soap. Don’t use any soap, shower gel, body lotion, talcum powder or other bathing products directly over your wound. 
  • When showering, you can let the water gently splash onto your healing wound. However, do not rub the wound, as this may cause pain and could delay the healing process
  • Always dry the wound thoroughly by patting it gently with a clean towel but allow your wound to air dry.

 

Ask your doctor or nurse about whether it’s OK to shower or bath, and how long you should keep your wound dry. Always follow their advice – they’ll know what’s best in your particular circumstances.

Your surgical wound stands the best chance of healing well if your body is as healthy as possible. There’s a lot you can do to help yourself.

If you smoke, try to give up before you have your surgery. Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen that gets to your tissues, which slows down wound healing. Ask your GP practice nurse for advice and support.

Your body needs energy and the right nutrients to heal quickly so it’s important that you eat well. Eating a healthy balanced diet should give you all the nutrients your wound needs to heal. And make sure that you drink enough water because if you’re dehydrated, your wound may take longer to heal. Taking supplements is not generally necessary for wound healing if you were in good health before surgery and you recover normally.

It’s useful to lose any excess weight, preferably before you have surgery. Being overweight can increase the time it takes for your wound to heal and increase the risk of wound infection.

If you have diabetes, it’s important to take care that your blood sugar is well controlled. This is because having high blood sugar can slow down the healing process.

Most surgical wounds heal fairly quickly without causing any problems, but it’s possible that your wound may become infected after surgery. You can ask your surgeon how likely it is that you’ll get an infection after your operation, and what to look out for.

If you develop an infection, you’ll usually be treated with a course of antibiotics. Very occasionally, you may need to have further surgery.

Your doctors and nurses will do everything they can to prevent your wound from becoming infected. But it’s important that you know how to spot if you’re developing an infection after you go home. If your wound becomes infected, it may:

 

  • become more painful
  • feel tender
  • look red, inflamed or swollen
  • leak or weep liquid, pus or blood
  • smell unpleasant
  • you may have a high temperature


A surgical wound infection can develop 2 to 3 days after your surgery, but may occur up to 2 to 3 weeks after your operation. If you have any of these symptoms or if you’re worried about the appearance of your wound, contact the ward or your GP surgery.

1. I have an abscess in my wound – what will happen?

An abscess is a collection of pus. Your body responds to infections by producing pus. If you get an infection in your surgical wound, although it’s uncommon, the pus formed may collect under your skin, forming an abscess. If you have an abscess, it’s likely to feel swollen and painful. You may also feel feverish. If you think you have an abscess, contact the ward or your GP surgery.

If you have a wound abscess, you’ll need treatment. If your abscess isn’t very big or deep, it may be possible to treat it with antibiotics. However, you may need to have it drained of pus and cleaned to remove damaged or infected tissue. Your doctor may give you antibiotics to take after your abscess has been drained, but this is usually only if the infection has spread.

If there was an infection already before your surgery, such as with acute diverticulitis or appendicitis, you may get a deeper abscess. If you have a deeper abscess, your surgeon may recommend further surgery to drain and clean it. Alternatively, you may have a CT or ultrasound scan so that a drain can be inserted through a thin tube using images to guide it.

2. I’ve heard I may develop cellulitis – what’s this?

Cellulitis is a spreading bacterial infection of the deep layers of your skin. Your skin has many bacteria living on it and these don’t usually cause problems. However, if your skin is damaged – such as when you have a surgical wound – these bacteria can enter your body. Your immune system fights these off, but sometimes that’s not enough and the bacteria grow and cause cellulitis.

If your wound becomes infected you may notice that it becomes red, inflamed or swollen. If you have cellulitis, you may notice the area of affected skin getting larger. You may also feel unwell, with a high temperature and chills or shivers.

If you have any of these symptoms, see your GP. If you have cellulitis, it’s important to start antibiotics early to stop the infection spreading. If your infection is severe, you may need to go into hospital for treatment.

The antibiotic used for cellulitis is usually a type of penicillin, so it’s important to tell your doctor if you’re allergic to penicillin.

This information was published by Bupa Group's Health Content Team and has been reviewed by appropriate medical or clinical professionals. To the best of their knowledge the information is current and based on reputable sources of medical evidence, however Bupa (Asia) Limited makes no representation or warranty as to the completeness or accuracy of the Content.

The information on this page, and any information on third party websites referred to on this page, is provided as a guide only.  It should not be relied upon as a substitute for professional medical advice, nor is it intended to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment. Bupa (Asia) Limited is not liable for any loss or damage you suffer arising out of the use of, or reliance on, the information.

Third party websites are not owned or controlled by Bupa and any individual may be able to access and post messages on them. Bupa is not responsible for the content or availability of these third party websites.

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